According to an Urdu account from 1836, the original Jumma Masjid or mosque was built by Konkani Muslims near the reservoir of the Dongri Fort somewhere east of present-day Mohammedali Road.The area around the mosque was occupied by coastal Muslim community, but sometime between 1750 and 1760, the mosque and the houses were torn down
The new Jumma Mosque was erected on the Esplanade but did not remain there for very long. It was dismantled in 1770 by Governor William Hornby, who forbade the existence of any building within 600 yards of the Fort walls. The mosque finally found space for a new home on Sheikh Memon Street near Pydhoni and construction began in 1775. It was finally completed in 1802 (until which time, Bombay Muslims used the Sattar mosque in Mandvi).
The inscription bearing this date can also be read as a chronogram, a sequence of numbers that look like Arabic lettering. It reads “Jahaz-i-Akhirat” or “The Ship of the World to Come”, indicating that the mosque which has always been near water, was constructed over a tank. The tank is said to have belonged to a Konkani Muslim businessman, who agreed to the erection of a mosque on the spot, provided that the tank was preserved intact. A one-storeyed building was erected over the tank, which formed the core of the present Juma Mosque. In 1837 the building was repaired and shops and an upper storey to hold sacred books were added. In 1874, 16 black stone arches were erected over the tank to support the mosque, and 5 wooden pillars were put in to hold up the upper level and 1893, stone steps were added to the tank. By 1898, wide windows, facing north, east and south were added
The Jumma Mosque is one of the most spacious mosques in the city. It has a quadrangular layout of bricks and stones, circled by a ring of terrace-roofed and double storied buildings with shops on the ground floor. The main gate leads across an open courtyard to the ancient tank. Attached to the Mosque is a school with a boarding house, the services of both of which are free.